27 Theses of Education Reform

I originally published these thoughts on the Exosphere website, but we decided to shelve them in our updated content because they can seem a bit tedious to the uninitiated. Nevertheless, I wanted to re-publish them here both so I can refer to them out in the world of social media and for people to be able to engage in an ongoing dialog in the comments.

1. Elite higher education must be elite in quality only, not quantity supplied; for a world with 7 billion people, we have a severe shortage of elite education supply.

2. Elite higher education can be offered at an affordable price, without needing to be subsidized.

3. Education should be outcome-oriented, not credential-oriented.

4. Learned people need to be as skilled at un-learning old information as at learning new information.

5. There is no orthodoxy: all ‘settled’ questions should be presumed to be settled only temporarily until new discoveries inevitably challenge them.

6. There is no universal canon of knowledge that everybody must learn in order to be considered ‘educated.’

7. The Two Cultures dichotomy must be obliterated from our consciousness.

8. The division of knowledge into disciplines must be rejected in order to integrate our understanding of the world; interdisciplinarity is insufficient as it merely reinforces the disciplines.

9. The Learner, not the Subject-matter, must be considered to be sovereign.

10. The Enlightenment principle of disinterested inquiry must give way to a more humane vision of interested, Progress-Oriented inquiry.

11. Learning is a life-long vocation (calling) that must be cultivated from youth and continued through old age.

12. Adulthood is a universal vocation that must be nurtured by the educational process; adulthood is characterized by self-reliance, community participation, and respect for others.

13. Creativity is a universal vocation that the educational process should foster rather than suppress.

14. Educators need to love their pupils and take an active interest in their lives rather than keeping them at arms-length.

15. All subject-matter is connected to the real world and should be learned as such.

16. Nobody should ever leave their educational community (‘graduate’) but rather their participation in it should evolve organically over time.

17. Learning should be guided, but principally self-motivated and self-directed.

18. Learning should not be the passive absorption of information, but the synthesis of information into action and creation; that is, learning should be production-focused, not consumption-focused.

19. Most information abilities can be developed in substantially less time than under traditional education methods when the abilities are necessitated by something that the learner is presently passionate about doing.

20. Passion discovery is an integral part of learning; without passion, all knowledge is hollow.

21. The framework for learning should be systems, not subjects. Systems are real, subjects are arbitrary.

22. Learning is enhanced when all participants in the process view each other with mutual respect; consequently, the line between ‘teacher’ and ‘student’ must be blurred.

23. Educators must stop looking at themselves as imparters of knowledge but instead as Sherpas guiding their pupils on an expedition of self-actualization, of which the acquisition of knowledge is but one component.

24. Education is over-programmed, over-planned, and over-managed, leaving little room for inspiration, reflection, and serendipity.

25. Education should not be about ‘civilizing’ the learner, or about bringing her into conformity with society; hence, education ought not be about enlightenment, but empowerment.

26. The front-lines of research and discovery should be fully integrated with the people who are commercializing innovation and bringing its benefits to society at-large.

27. Social responsibility and solidarity must be at the heart of all educational reformation.

The Learning Experience at Exosphere

Here is our prospective story of the learning experience at Exosphere:

Members of the Exosphere community will have a significant variety of avenues and formats for customizing their learning experience, not only to acquire the skills and knowledge to purse projects they are passionate about, but also to stoke curiosity in an array of other topics. Unlike the traditional classroom setting, the Exosphere learning experience is focused on experience. Learning should always be about doing something, rather than practicing to do something. Our model of open inquiry allows the oxygen necessary to spark flames of passion in all of our participants, from the youngest candidates to the oldest fellows. We are all in a process of co-discovery. For our participants this means an unparalleled learning experience.

Some of the ways we foster innovation and creativity are…

Problem Identification Laboratories

Fellows are encouraged to lead Problem Identification Laboratories focusing on a cluster of issues with a view toward start-ups spinning out from the Labs. Some Labs may be short-term and narrow in the subject matter considered, others may be open ended and run indefinitely. We believe that many start-ups fail not because of a lack of dedication from their founders, but because they take a product-oriented approach to business rather than a problem-oriented approach. By drawing our members into forums like Problem Identification Laboratories, we believe we can mitigate one of the primary causes of start-up failure.

Skill Boot Camps

New skills are required constantly due to rapidly changing technology. The modern university not only responds slowly to these changing requirements, but because of its outmoded system of evaluation, is ineffective at actually helping its students to develop proficiency in a skill. Fellows, Residents with unique expertise in a skill are encouraged to host Skill Boot Camps that feature intensive study of a single subject (for example PHP programming, Drupal development or even more physical things like soldering or organic heirloom tomato gardening) with the sole and exclusive purpose of being able to produce something useful with that skill. Because we don’t care about tests and grades, these activities, like everything else in the Exosphere community, are tools for the pursuit of problem-solving products. We encourage everybody in the Exosphere community, Fellows, Residents, and Candidates alike to attend Skill Boot Camps and expand their portfolio of abilities.

One-on-One Mentoring

The core of the Exosphere experience is the Fellow-Candidate relationship and the Fellow’s role as mentor and “co-curator” of the Candidate’s learning journey. Weekly meetings, small group sessions, reading lists, and open dialogue characterize the ideal mix of activities that Fellows and Candidates will engage in as part of the mentorship process. The cultivation of mutual respect and genuine community between Fellow and Candidate is essential. The modern university has bought into the idea that ‘students’ and ‘teachers’ must maintain professional distance in the same way as doctors and patients. We reject this impersonal, disinterested approach. Learning should be both human and humane. The subject-matter is not sovereign, the learners are.

Discussion Groups & Public Debates

Discussion and debate expose ideas to challenge, help us question our own assumptions, and sharpen our critical reasoning abilities. These are skills that we must continue to hone throughout our lives and they are a central part of the Exosphere community.

Mutual Teaching

Everybody has something to learn, and everybody has something to teach. At Exosphere, mutualism is just part of our culture, and we encourage everybody who is part of our community to engage each other in various kinds of learning, especially language learning. But mutualism is not only for academic subjects and innovation-oriented skills, it is for cooking, music, art, and so many other things that all of our talented, creative members can capably teach each other.

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Customizing Education

One of the problems with our industrial era university system is that it provides a commoditized service rather than one customized to the needs, passions, and desires of the individual learners. This has become even more pronounced since the renaissance of the classical Core Curriculum since the late 1970s and 1980s, whose origins have more to do with the academy’s position as the final vanguard of late capitalism (that is, corporatist capitalism) than with the practical concerns of the learners themselves.

Entrepreneurial capitalism, which favors disruptive innovation, agile non-permanent institutions, and accepts chaos and uncertainty is the next stage of market development, one that will produce a new era of invention and widespread wealth and far more equality than we have ever witnessed before. Unfortunately, our commoditized university system is preventing us from rapidly making the transition.

Education is a peculiar business. It is the only sector whose end-product and end-customer are the same. Given the diversity of the customers, one would expect a diversity of production processes. Instead we have several thousand factories in the world attempting to make the same product and reverse engineering the perceived gold standard of educational manufacturing: Harvard.

Whether a person attends Harvard or a state school in the deep South, the body of knowledge being passed on to the ‘student’ is roughly the same. The professors will be different, the networking value of the four-year experience will be dramatically different, and the way society perceives their respective graduates will be different, but the aim and process are essentially analogous. Teaching is done through highly rigid disciplines, and the extent of customization for the student takes place in elective course selection (to the extent that they even have many elective opportunities with more and more subjects being considered ‘essential’).

Moreover, the opinions and approaches the faculty take will be basically the same. Students attending university are unlikely to be exposed to any truly disruptive mode of thinking, and only the most conservative students will find significant challenges to their views & assumptions. The bureaucratic nature of the modern academy generates conformism and ladder-climbing among both students and faculty.

The alternative is a carefully crafted, customized learning experience that is co-curated by ‘student’ and ‘professor,’ though such labels do more harm than good. Let’s use ‘learner’ and ‘learning coach’ instead. The learning process would begin by getting to the heart of what each learner’s motivations and passions are. This is not an interest inventory. We shouldn’t be concerned with what university subjects they find the most enjoyable. Rather, we should be concerned with what kinds of problems learners find interesting and then proceed to learning the skills and knowledge necessary to put together real solutions to those problems.

Contrived lab experiments are never a substitute for real experience, and a customized education would be replete with real experience, including what would undoubtedly be lots of real failure. Learning coaches should be highly skilled in assumption-challenging and probing interrogation of learners, and they should take a meaningful interest in the learners they are responsible for mentoring. Much of our society’s coldness and atomization stems from the perverse ideal of disinterestedness in all realms of society, but especially in education and medicine, two of the most intimate areas of human experience. We learn to compartmentalize the different facets of our lives, and then we wonder how we can be so inhumane to one another. This is a trend that should be reversed on its own merits, but reversing it will inure substantial benefits to the learning process.

Furthermore, there should be no expiration date on learning. Graduation is an archaic notion we should abandon in its entirety. Life-long learning should be the new expectation, and it should be tied to the creative activities of the learner over the course of her life, in the context of a unique community of fellow learners solving their own problems and pursuing their own passions.

Project Exosphere, which will be launched later this year in Valparaiso, Chile, is a problem-solving syndicate and renegade alternative to the commoditized higher education that pervades the world today. Project Exosphere focuses on combining close relationships, deep community, and an open approach to learning and entrepreneurship that exists nowhere in the world today.

We have a world of more than 7 billion diverse customers who all have different needs, wants and dreams. In order to meet their incredibly diverse demands, we need hundreds of millions of creative, agile entrepreneurs each with unique skills, passions, knowledge, and experience to come up with solutions for all of earth’s people. Our commoditized factory university system isn’t going suffice.

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The Curse of the Disciplines

Much of the creative potential in our world is either locked inside the minds of physicists and chemists who have been trained to think like scientists or in the minds of artists and architects who do not have the scientific knowledge to bring their ideas to fruition. This is the curse of the disciplinary society that has ingrained in our culture by the modern university. Specialization has taken place along arbitrary lines dictated by the academy’s self-serving status preservation motive and its status as guardian of late capitalism.

The silos of knowledge created by the arbitrary disciplines keep human & intellectual capital subservient to financial and physical capital even though technology breakthroughs in the last twenty years have ameliorated intellectual capital’s subsidiary status in reality. With these breakthroughs (and as we are on the verge of nearly a dozen more), the world can be disrupted and reshaped from one minute to the next based on the power of an idea and the willingness of small groups of people to execute on it. The academy, whose endowment funds, “endowed chairs,” research grants, and other financial wheel-greasing, has become the pawn of the status quo interests in business and politics who do not want to face competitive pressure from the market.

In the past, it was the banks and financial institutions alone that prevented new market entrants who could compete with established companies, but with the advent of venture capital and more importantly, the transformation of new businesses’ cost curve in the Information Age, these traditional barriers have become less and less effective. The modern university is now all that stands in the way of a tidal wave of innovation and market competition that will remake our world into a richer, more vibrant, freer place with greater equality in the distribution of wealth, more opportunity, and higher levels of income mobility than have ever been seen in human history.

But to get there, we need to rethink the entire way we organize our learning process to avoid the kinds of tunnel vision that permeate every layer of what passes for our most innovative research today.

Rather than training physicists, we need to find people who are passionate about building structurally sound skyscrapers that have 1-inch walls and then help them acquire the knowledge to create the new materials necessary to make that a reality.

We must break down every barrier between the disciplines by raising up a new generation of innovators who do not even see that there were barriers before, who have not been corrupted by the arbitrary divisions that have been passed down to us by the academy and the standard-bearers of late capitalism. The kinds of specialists who arise from this new approach will be specialized in solving particular, real problems faced by people in the world.

Big Data, Robotics, 3D Printing, Nano-materials, artificial intelligence, alternative transactions, and much more are putting a new reality at our fingertips, one devoid of many of the physical limitations that currently hold us back. But we must be prepared to harness these exponential technologies rapidly and efficiently.

Project Exosphere is a problem-solving syndicate, a renegade alternative to traditional university education creating just this kind of community and environment to cultivate the next generation of innovator-entrepreneurs. As we launch in Chile later this year, we will share our progress and ask for your help in challenging the most ingrained assumptions in our society.

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Learning How to Innovate

Most entrepreneurs will say that the skills necessary to be an entrepreneur and innovator cannot be taught. This may well be true, but that does not mean that those skills cannot be learned.

We should find it a bit remarkable that for all of the talk of hands-on learning and practical learning in the past ten years, that we still do very little of this in school, whether in grade school or university. Worse, what does tend to pass for hands-on learning is usually just some arbitrary simulation of something in the real world. Universities in recent years have specialized in an attempt to re-create reality in the cloistered confines of their Ivory Towers, in spite of the fact that few of their personnel have any experience outside of the academy.

Consequently, practical learning in the university tends to be a representation of reality, through the lens of an academic who in any case is mostly concerned with her own research far more than teaching, and certainly more than student learning (which is not necessarily aligned with teaching). Of course it is not the professor’s fault. Her incentive structure does not promote student learning and real-world experience. Indeed, the professor herself is actively discouraged by the institutional framework of the university to do much that resembles real-world activity.

Changing the institutional mandates of the university would be insufficient to meaningfully reverse this situation. Professors would at best come up with arbitrary simulation activities, as long as their principle motivations are the publication of academic research and teaching evaluations. They might make the course material more fun in the process, but it would merely be dressing up academia to look practical.

There is a growing body of advocates for “un-schooling,” encouraging university students to drop out and for high schoolers to forgo university altogether. PayPal founder and billionaire Peter Thiel is not only one of the most prominent voices in this movement, he has literally put his money where his mouth is, starting the Thiel Fellowship  which gives 20 young people under the age of 20 a $100,000 grant and 2 years to pursue their passion, travel, study, write, and start an entrepreneurial venture.

This is a first and fundamentally necessary shot across the bow of the self-appointed institutional gatekeepers of the modern credentialing cartel.

The challenge now is to take the premise of un-schooling and systematize the life long learning & entrepreneurial ethos without attempting to institutionalize it. This is the paradox my colleagues and I are taking on in Chile with Project Exosphere, which we are launching later this year. Our goal is to create a scalable model for exponentially expanding the entrepreneurial & innovative potential in developing countries by providing a systematic alternative to a formal university education.

Thiel Fellow Dale Stephens, whose non-profit UnCollege is another leading voice in the alternative education crowd frequently discusses the concept of “hacking your education.” This is an appropriate metaphor, and we would describe Project Exosphere as a sort of “educational hackerspace.” We believe that innovation & entrepreneurship can be learned by anybody within the right environment. Such an entrepreneurial learning ecosystem can be characterized by:

  • Community (cohesion, mutual respect, interested interdependence)
  • Problem Identification
  • Solution Process Thinking
  • Action-oriented learning (that is, learning because one needs the knowledge or skills to perform tangible actions toward their passion-goals)
  • Non-disciplinary approach to learning (that is, a unified concept of knowledge, rather than it being broken down into fields of study)

Further, innovation-learning must incorporate three essential pillars of entrepreneurship into all activities:

  • Invention (i.e. solving technical problems)
  • Aesthetics & Design (i.e. making technical solutions apparently desirable)
  • Sales & Marketing (i.e. commercialization of solutions through direct customer contact)

These general skills must be learned alongside specific knowledge required to solve particular problems faced by “customers” in the real world. Consequently, we must abandon the traditional distinction between professor and student in favor of a model of co-discovery, whereby more experienced innovators coach less experienced innovators on how to learn, how to adapt, and how to develop their passions into solutions to problems in the world. This means the coaches must be actively engaged in entrepreneurship themselves while they are coaching.

In the coming days I will be writing further about learning and the philosophical framework from which we are working as well as the radically de-centralized and non-institutional approach we are developing to systematically produce a culture of forward thinking and innovation, especially in developing countries.

At Exosphere we are going to raise up a new generation of innovator-entrepreneurs that are going to re-create and renovate the world as we know it.

Stay tuned to this space for more information and for the coming launch of the Exosphere website.

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The Power of Passionate People

A comprehensive survey of employee satisfaction in 2009 showed that only 14% of respondents were extremely satisfied with their jobs. Among Millennials, only 35% were even somewhat satisfied, with over 62% of Millennials responding that they intended to intensify their search for a new job in the following 12 months. Such high levels of satisfaction show a fundamental problem with the current division of labour.

People are simply not doing what the are called to do.

In the aftermath of the Great Depression and World War II, career began to take center stage in American life. What a person did defined who they were. We need this to be reversed. Who a person is should define what they do. This is the beginning of revising our understanding of vocation, but it will be a long and difficult process, for the mere acknowledgment of our poverty of passion does not begin to undo the numerous institutions, norms, and cultural expectations that have ingrained the careerist mentality in our collective psyche. For this reason, we must start at the beginning, at the root of the problem.

Our schools and universities are factories. Indeed, the modern schooling system was developed in the age of industrialization, the heritage of Prussian military organizational principles applied to production and then modified yet again for public education. The division of students into age-based ‘grades’ and the division of learning into rigid disciplines, with each teacher consigned and labeled “a physics professor” or “a literature professor” has all the trappings of a factory. Each cog has its function, and the output are uniformly educated ‘graduates’ who have been bequeathed a common body of knowledge. That product is then shipped to factory-like corporations who can plug these cogs into their own machinery.

As we are witnessing the twilight of the era of mass production (and with the advent of 3D Printing, we are truly near a revolutionary time in decentralized, small-scale production), this model of education could not possibly be more archaic.

Universities regiment students into pre-defined disciplines, and although there is lip-service paid to the value of “interdisciplinary studies,” the emphasis continues to be on high degrees of specialization in these pre-defined disciplines. The innovation economy at once demands a more generalized body of knowledge (in order to connect the dots between different disciplines) and a higher degree of specialization (in order to produce a specific product or service to meet customers’ demands). The university is not merely poorly equipped for this task, it is intensely counter-productive.

Our learning environments need less structure, less testing, fewer arbitrary metrics for assessment, and more emphasis on embracing the chaos and rapid change of the innovation economy. More than teachers we need learning coaches, who help people equip themselves with the ability to continually learn and adapt, and most importantly, to discover their own passions and calling.

Moreover, we must embrace the fact that people can have multiple passions over the course of life, and that they may be substantially different from each other. Today if one wants to change careers he must take 2-4 years (or sometimes more) out of his life to go back to school and get a new degree and then start at the bottom of some new ladder. Lifelong learning communities should supplant the university model. Participation in research, study & discussion groups, and other forms of learning should become part of our daily lives.

We attend the gym for our bodies, and church for our souls, why do we not dedicate similar attention to the expansion of our minds throughout adulthood?

If we embraced a more fluid, flexible model of learning that embeds it as a taken-for-granted part of life, we will not only have happier, more satisfied professional lives, having discovered our passions and then equipped ourselves to dedicate our work to pursuing them. We will also unlock vast creative resources locked in the minds of people who currently live for the weekend because they hate their job. These creative resources will propel society at-large past our current boundaries in innovation and could just solve some of the seemingly intractable problems that plague our world.

Passionate, driven people have given the world the automobile, the airplane, the Internet, antibiotics, the Human Genome Project, and so much more. Imagine if that tiny minority of people were expanded to all of us. In less than a generation, this little blue planet would be unrecognizably better. We cannot allow inertia, vested interests in the status quo, and a “that’s just the way things are / have always been done” mentality to deprive us of such a future.

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